Osteoarthritis is a pathology with an important genetic component that influences both its development and its progression. The influence of the characteristic genetic factors of each patient can affect the articular cartilage, making it more or less prone to its degeneration. The existence of polymorphisms in different genes may influence the predisposition and/or severity of osteoarthritis.
For years it has been accepted that osteoarthritis is a polygenic disease. Genetics together with clinical factors influence not only the appearance of osteoarthritis, but also the progression of the disease.
Recent epidemiological studies estimate that knee osteoarthritis is hereditary in 40%. As well as the progression of the disease by osteophytes and the narrowing of the intra-articular space is also hereditary in 60-70%.
Knowledge of human DNA has led to a radical change in the diagnosis and prognosis of genetically based diseases.
In this field, knowledge has made it possible to speed up the identification of genetic variants (genetic polymorphisms) associated with the risk of suffering certain diseases and/or of suffering a more or less rapid progression of the disease, facilitating an early diagnosis and prognosis of the disease in each patient.
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